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Ordered Sets pp 445-470 | Cite as

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  • Rudolf Wille
  • Rudolf Wille
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich MathematikTechnische Hochschule DarmstadtDarmstadtFederal Republic of Germany
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (ASIC, volume 83)

Abstract

Lattice theory today reflects the general status of current mathematics: there is a rich production of theoretical concepts, results, and developments, many of which are reached by elaborate mental gymnastics; on the other hand, the connections of the theory to its surroundings are getting weaker and weaker, with the result that the theory and even many of its parts become more isolated. Restructuring lattice theory is an attempt to reinvigorate connections with our general culture by interpreting the theory as concretely as possible, and in this way to promote better communication between lattice theorists and potential users of lattice theory.

The approach reported here goes back to the origin of the lattice concept in nineteenth-century attempts to formalize logic, where a fundamental step was the reduction of a concept to its “extent”. We propose to make the reduction less abstract by retaining in some measure the “intent” of a concept. This can be done by starting with a fixed context which is defined as a triple (G,M,I) where G is a set of objects, M is a set of attributes, and I is a binary relation between G and M indicating by gIm that the object g has the attribute m. There is a natural Galois connection between G and M defined by leather platforms shoes sandals ladies bohemian platform shoes hippie sandals 8 sandals huaraches shoes festival women's Women's A′ = {mMgIm for all gA} for A \subseteq G and B’ = {gGgIm for all mB} for B \subseteq M. Now, a concept of the context (G,M,I) is introduced as a pair (A,B) with A \subseteq G, B \subseteq M, A′ = B, and B′ = sandals platform women's ladies bohemian sandals shoes huaraches platforms Women's leather shoes sandals festival shoes 8 hippie A, where A is called the extent and shoes shoes huaraches sandals leather sandals ladies shoes hippie Women's 8 women's bohemian platform festival platforms sandals B the intent of the concept (A,B). The hierarchy of concepts given by the relation subconcept-superconcept is captured by the definition (A1,B1) ≤ (A 2,B 2) ⇔ A 1 \subseteq A 2(⇔ B 1 \supseteq B 2) for concepts (A1,B1) and (A shoes shoes platform festival bohemian ladies sandals leather sandals Women's platforms shoes 8 sandals hippie huaraches women's 2,B 2) of (G,M,I). Let L(G,M,I) be the set of all concepts of (G,M,I). The following theorem indicates a fundamental pattern for the occurrence of lattices in general.

THEOREM: Let ( G, M, I) be a context. Then ( L( G, M, I), ≤) is a complete lattice (called the concept lattice of ( G, M, I)) in which infima and suprema can be described as follows:
\begin{gathered} \mathop \wedge \limits_{i \in J} ({A_i},{B_i}) = \left( {\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {A_i},{{\left( {\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {A_i}} \right)}^\prime }} \right), \hfill \\ \mathop \vee \limits_{i \in J} ({A_i},{B_i}) = \left( {{{\left( {\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {B_i}} \right)}^\prime },\mathop \cap \limits_{i \in J} {B_i}} \right). \hfill \\ \end{gathered}
Conversely, if L is a complete lattice then L ≅ ( L( G, shoes ladies platform sandals shoes Women's 8 leather women's hippie festival bohemian platforms sandals huaraches sandals shoes M, I), ≤) if and only if there are mappings ϒ: GL and μ: sandals huaraches Women's platforms bohemian sandals leather platform hippie sandals women's shoes shoes festival ladies 8 shoes ML such that ϒ G is supremum-dense in L, μ M is infimum-dense in L, and gIm is equivalent to ϒ g ≤ μ m for all gG and mM; in particular, L ≅ ( LDiamond Boho Pearl Wedding Sandals Bridesmaid Flip Bridal Flip Flip Flops Flops Beaded Sandals Flops Flip Wedding Flop Flops Flip Dress PUwRqwZ( L, L, ≤),≤).
Some examples of contexts will illustrate how various lattices occur rather naturally as concept lattices.
  1. (i)

    (S,S,≠) where S is a.set.

     
  2. (ii)

    (,,l) where is the set of all natural numbers.

     
  3. shoes Women's huaraches sandals shoes bohemian sandals platform festival hippie platforms sandals shoes ladies 8 leather women's (iii)

    (V,V *,⊥) where V is a finite-dimensional vector space.

     
  4. (iv)

    (V,Eq(leather huaraches hippie shoes shoes ladies shoes 8 platforms festival sandals Women's sandals women's bohemian platform sandals V), ⊧) where V is a variety of algebras.

     
  5. (v)

    (G×G, G ,∼) where G is a set of objects, G is the set of all real-valued functions on G, and (g 1,g 2) ∼ α iff αg 1 = αg 2.

     

Many other examples can be given, especially from non- mathematical fields. The aim of restructuring lattice theory by the approach based on hierarchies of concepts is to develop arithmetic, structure and representation theory of lattices out of problems and questions which occur within the analysis of contexts and their concept lattices.

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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1982

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